Application of GIS in Smart Cities

Cities are spatial, cultural, social, economic, political, legal, democratic and ecological system. Cities have abilities to uplift any nation, converting cities to smarter cities makes smarter nations by planning, management, governance and development systems. Smart city tries to identify a smarter option for escalating the end-user satisfaction and accelerating development. GIS allows viewing, interpreting and visualizing data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns and trends in form of maps, reports and charts. Geographic information systems are used for devising of an area in a optimizing and smarter way but in most of the developing nations its application is limited to scale in urban management. GIS can incorporate millions of variables and has the capacity to geocode these variables and stimulate for planning, management and development of a smart city. GIS based urbanization policy can lead to broad allocation of land for future development and delineation of areas for future urbanization.

GIS-mapping of non-urban areas and eventual integration with urban areas can be achieved through national GIS. An intelligent GIS assist the user in analysis, requires the Capability to understand user’s information seeking goal, to select and visualize appropriate data in an away productive for achieving these goals and to support the user’s analytical activity by using of the generated presentations. GIS provides spatially referenced data base (with latitude, longitude) and non-spatial data (census, TVC, climate data, water supply statistics) and includes operation which supports spatial analysis in GIS. GIS helps in creation of multiple layer scenarios in time which help in efficient decision-making.

Smart cities are being technology driven with key focus on sustainability, likewise, for smart urbanization GIS and related technologies should be used, which will be time-saving and enhance quality of decision-making. Existing land use plan and its database in GIS facilitates land suitability analysis to arrive at a proposed land use that is efficient. Emerging slums can be detected and tackled early through regular support from satellite images to observe the extent of encroachment. Redevelopment measures can be facilitated through household survey on GIS platform. Time series satellite images help in identification of underutilized lands within the city for redevelopment.

Compact cities can be developed by conforming use of chronological satellite images in city planning. Time series data allows a comprehensive view of entire region and beyond, which can be used to stimulate and quantify impacts of specific policy inputs like IT Park, proposed transportation network etc. It Helps to interpret characteristics and conditions of specific pollutants in air and water. Digital remote sensing data available through aerial photographs and satellite images are converted into useful information such as land cover maps. Overlay of collateral data are of great value in analysis of remotely sensed data. Image classification and interpretation using time series images forms the basis for image detection. Raster data of ROI is classified into a fixed no. of classes. Classification results are validated by ground trothing. Classification results are exported to detect the changes over significant length of time. It provides the base map for quantification of environmental impacts that offset sustainability and facilitate the identification of the polluters and the beneficiaries.

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